Tag Archives: Police

Radicalisation in the Police

Radicalisation is defined as favouring revolutionary means for social change. The question is: what constitutes in the mind of an individual the notion of inevitability of social change and employing violent means for its realisation? Three factors influence an individual’s behaviour – internal social environment, external social interaction and international polarity system. The internal social environment encompasses the immediate social setup wherein an individual thrives and receives primary education or learning. The external social interaction covers all secondary actors who frequently meet the individual and discuss issues of mutual concern. It may also cover organisational sub-culture, which constantly influences a person during working hours. International polarity, on the other hand, is defined as the global system of governance whose parameters are set by leading developed countries and implemented across the globe. An individual gets the idea of the international polarity system through social media, external social interaction or electronic and print mass communication means. These three factors have a different impact on an individual’s radicalisation process – irrespective of his or her socio-cultural background. The radicalised individual looks for an opportunity to react at times violently and at times non-violently. These reactions get impetus due to a lose governing infrastructure and passive social control in a country or region. In regimented organisations individuals are usually subjected to disciplined lives. However, as lawlessness increases and the state loses its legitimacy of monopoly of control over violence the chances of radicalisation among members of regimented organisations increase many fold. Secondly, internal organisational dysfunctionality engenders opportunities for the radicalized members to exhibit their expressions forcefully. Such action was observed when Mumtaz Qadri, an Elite qualified Punjab Police employee, officially deputed on the security duty of the governor of Punjab, attacked and killed his benefactor in January 2011 in Islamabad despite his radicalised behaviour being reported to his superiors before the incident. Similarly, investigation reports on a number of terror attacks on law-enforcement agencies (LEAs) reveal that terrorists were abetted by insiders in carrying out such deadly acts. The army has tried to mitigate the internal threat through different reforms focusing on junior officers’ welfare, enhancing officer-subordinate communication frequency and enforcing strict discipline in all ranks. Unfortunately, such mechanisms have not been adopted in police organisations in Pakistan. Resultantly, chances of radicalisation have increased in the police force; this can dent the government’s resolve to fight terrorism. After the Mumtaz Qadri episode, psychologists were hired in Punjab to determine the mental and physical suitability of police officials for sensitive security duties. Nearly, 6291 police force members underwent psychological profiling; 1342 were verified, 17 were declared unsuitable for security duties and 4949 profiles are still pending with authorities. The practice of psychological profiling has been disrupted in 2015, leaving more than 100,000 police personnel without any official record formulation on mental stability. Close monitoring is urgently required with high frequency of officer-subordinate interactions so that the clear and precise picture of each force member can be documented. The resource distribution is also lopsided in the police department wherein 85 percent budget is consumed on pay and allowances. The amount available for force welfare is so small that no meaningful change can be envisaged in force outlook within a span of few years. In the Khyber Pakhtunkwa Police Department, which has a total strength of about 75,000, a scanning programme has been designed which has so far tested 35,000 police personnel. The points of scanning police officials include past history, family backgrounds, tribal affiliations, jihadi participation, Afghanistan tours, criminal records and income sources. These benchmarks however are not able to pinpoint the inclination towards radicalisation in an official. This is one of the reasons why only a hundred individuals have been earmarked as radicals who are currently being subjected to a thorough probe before any final decision can be taken about their future. So far not a single official has been dismissed on account of being declared a radical person in the KP police force. Nonetheless, no model exists for radicalisation detection in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. In the Punjab Police Department, the psychological analysis is principally based on detecting mental equilibrium and extremist inclination during a written exercise for police officials. We have devised a de-radicalisation model but we lack a radicalisation detection mechanism for probable phasing out of suspected officials during the scanning process. The radicalisation mechanism should be based on detecting the social, ideological, political, cultural and religious inclinations of an individual. The mechanism should hinge upon the following six factors. First, the self-identification of an individual be maintained as well as how s/he defines his/her character – for example, whether an individual associates with a religious figure or defines his character in a neutral way. If the individual likes a particular national or international leader then we need to see the key characteristics of that leader. Second, how does the individual see himself vis-a-vis the whole society? Does he isolate himself or negate social alienation? Does the person express feelings for or against the government? Are there any changes in personal narratives or not? Third, the mode of social interaction and kind of social capital that an individual enjoys while living under a peculiar socio-cultural environment must be part of the radicalisation detection method. If a person has the knack of getting influenced easily and has large religious capital then s/he must be categorised carefully leading to expulsion. Fourth, whether the individual is emotionally stable or not sends alert signals on many counts including static or mobile duty suitability and VVIP protection protocol assignment deployment. Fifth, does an individual have any visible ties with tribes who are belligerent or antithetical to government policies? Does the official belong to a group having nexus with terror operators or not? Does the individual bear any connections with cross-border insurgents or not? Does the person under review have a high percentage of unpredictable behaviour when subjected to demanding situations or not? These guidelines must fit into the radicalisation model effectively. Lastly, does the person know how to use digital-electronic devices or not? The more evasive and indirect the questions encompassing all the indicators, the more precise the data compilation on radicalisation in police organisations. It is time to introduce these measures in police organisations otherwise police field formations will not be able to hold out a cleared area.

Faisal Ali Raja Thursday, July 09, 2015

The writer is in the police service of Pakistan. Email: far2105@caa.columbia.edu

Police Rules 1934 Pakistan by ANK

Punjab Police Rules 1934 – Chapter 1 – Organisation

Chapter I:  Organization


1-1.      Constitution For the purposes of section 3 of the Police Act (V of 1861) the Punjab is divided into “General Police District” namely: –

(a) the Provincial Police District.

[1](b) The Railway Police District]

All ranks of Police employed in the province are appointed or enrolled under section 2 of the Act.

1-2.      Inspector General – [2][The Inspector-General of Police, responsible for the command of the Police force, its discipline administration. He is responsible for advising the Provincial Government in all matters connected with it.

The Inspector-General of Police is assisted by such number of Additional Inspector-General Deputy Inspectors-General and Assistant Inspectors-General as the Provincial Government may from time appoint].

1-3.      General Police District – divisions of The Provincial Police General district is divided into administrative establishment; a Training [3][College] (including the Provincial Finger Print Bureau); a 4[Special Branch, a Crime Branch]. The District Police Establishment 3[the sentence the Railway Police General District is divided into a Central Intelligence Agency and such number of Sub-Divisions as the Provincial Government may authorize from time to time].

1-4.      Administrative division – The District of the province are grouped in Ranges and the administration of all police within each such range is vested in a Deputy Inspector-General under the control of the Inspector-General of Police.

The Railway Police District is administered, under the control of the Inspector-General of Police, by an Assistant, Inspector-General of Police, who has the powers of, and is responsible for the duties allotted to, a Deputy Inspector-General of a range. The limits of the Railway Police Districts are the railway limits within the Punjab.


3[The Police Training College Sihala is under the Principal of that college who is in the rank of Deputy Inspector General.  The Crime Branch is administrated by the Deputy Inspector General who also supervises the Fingerprint Bureau.  The Special Branch is under the charge of Deputy Inspector General]

1-5.      Limits of jurisdiction and liability to transfer – All Police officers appointed or enrolled in 3[either of the two] 6[Pakistan] general police district constitute one police force and are liable to, and legally empowered for, police duty anywhere within the province. No sub-division of the force territorially or by classes, such as mounted and foot police, affects this principle.

Though not liable to permanent transfer beyond the limits of the Punjab. Every police officer is empowered by section 3, Police Act III of 1888, when necessary, to exercise the powers, functions and privileges of a police officer in any part of 7[Pakistan]. In the exercise of such function a police officer is deemed to be a member of the police force of the province in which he is at the time.

1-6.      Deputy Inspectors-General – duties and functions of – 8[“The Deputy Inspector-General of Police, Crime” Special Branch and Crime Branch and Special Branch.”.

The Deputy Inspector-General, Crime Branch is responsible, through the staff of his department, for the intelligence organization of the criminal administration; in this capacity he is called upon the assist both the Provincial Government and the district authorities.  He is also authorized to call upon the district or railway police for action in such matters, whether in respect of crime or intelligence as may, from time to time, be consigned to his charge.  In respect of crime, Department of Police Crime Branch will keep the Deputy Inspector General of Police a Special Branch, a Crime Branch the ranges concerned fully informed of all action which his department is taking within the sphere of their jurisdiction.

The Deputy Inspector General of a range is responsible to the Inspector-General for the administration, training and discipline of the police of this range and for the efficiency of their organization and operations for the prevention and detection of crime. In the exercise of this responsibility a Deputy Inspector-General will interfere as little as possible with the executive authority of the Superintendents under him, and will permit such modifications of practice and organization to suit local conditions as he may consider advisable, and as the law and these rules allow. He will use his powers of control to secure a uniform standard of efficiency and the fullest co-operation between districts and branches of the force in the circulation of information and in action against criminals.

To ensure that efficiency shall not be impaired by undue variation in methods of practice in different parts of the province. Deputy Inspectors-General of ranges and of the Crime Branch shall maintain close touch with each other by informal meetings and formal conferences. They shall freely exchange information relating to the criminal administration, and shall ensure that co-operation between ranges and branches of the force is as close as that between the districts within a range. Before issuing any circular order having the effect of altering in principle any matter of departmental practice or affecting the administration of the law, Deputy Inspectors-General shall obtain the approval of the Inspector-General Copies of all such circular orders and of instructions of general importance, whether previously approved by the Inspector-General or not, shall be sent to the Inspector-General and other Deputy Inspector-General for information.

1-7.      Relations of Deputy Inspectors-General with Commissioners and District Magistrates – In his dealings with Commissioners and District Magistrate, the Deputy Inspector-General is the representative of the Inspector-General. Within the field in which the Inspector-General in the adviser of the Provincial Government, the Deputy Inspector-General should be the adviser of the Commissioners and District Magistrates, whose jurisdictions lie within his range. His knowledge and authority should at all times be at their disposal for promoting police efficiency and for concerting measures for the better control of crime. Cases in which differences of opinion arise between a Deputy Inspector-General and a Commissioner or District Magistrate on matters in which the orders of Government are advisable shall be referred through the Inspector-General.

1-8.      Superintendent of Police – The Superintendent of Police is the executive head of the district police force. He is directly responsible for all matters relating to its internal economy, training and management, and for the maintenance of its discipline and the efficient performance of all its duties.

In every district there shall be one or more Superintendent and such number of Assistant Superintendents, Deputy Superintendents, Inspectors, Sergeants, Sub-Inspectors, Assistant Sub-Inspectors, Head Constables and Constables as the Provincial Government may direct.

1-9.      Assistant and Deputy Superintendents – The authority and duties of Assistant and Deputy Superintendent of Police are the same and interchangeable. They derive their powers from the fifth definition in section 1 of the Police Act (V of 1861) and from section 551 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, Assistant and Deputy Superintendent of Police are posted to districts and other duties at the discretion of the Provincial Government to be trained and to assist the Superintendent in the discharge of his responsibilities, and the authority of the Superintendent is delegated to them to the extent prescribed by these rules.


1-10.    Police Station Jurisdiction – District and the railway police sub-divisions are divided into police station jurisdictions according to administrative convenience and in order to meet the requirements or the Code of Criminal Procedure [section 4 (1)(s)]. The boundaries of these jurisdictions have all been fixed from time to time on the authority of the Provincial Government, and are unalterable save under the same authority. Outposts are located where necessary for the control of crime and are subordinate to the police stations in the jurisdictions of which they are located. Normally, a police station is in charge of a sub-Inspector of police and an outpost in commanded by an assistant sub-Inspectors head constable.


No alteration in the number of police stations and outposts or in the boundaries of police station jurisdictions may be made without the sanction of the Provincial Government. Proposals for such alterations shall be submitted, in the form outlined in Appendix 1-10, by Superintendents of Police, through the District Magistrate to the Deputy Inspector-General of the range. The latter, after forward it to the Inspector-General of Police, through the Commissioner of the division.


1-11.    Changes in distribution – Temporary changes to the disposition of the police force within a district may be made by Superintendents with the concurrence of the District Magistrate, but no permanent alterations shall be made without the previous sanction of the Inspector-General. Any temporary changes made under the authority of this rule shall be reported unofficially to the Deputy Inspector-General through the channel of the weekly diary of the Superintendent of Police (Rule 21-9).


1-12.    Power of Sub-Inspectors – Sub-Inspectors incharge of police stations exercise all the powers of an officer in charge of a police station. Additional sub-inspectors in police stations may be deputed by the officer incharge under officers in virtue of the powers granted under section 551. Code of Criminal Procedure, to investigate cases and such officers then have the powers to investigate, which are granted under Chapter XIV, Code of Criminal Procedure, to any officer making an investigation under that chapter. Sub-inspectors, and officers junior to a sub-inspector, may arrest under the orders of the officer in charge of a Police station under section 55, Code of Criminal Procedure, the persons detailed in that section.

The definition of “officer in charge of a police station,” in section 4(1) (p). Code of Criminal Procedure, empowers other police officers, in certain circumstances, to exercise the powers of such an officer.

The powers of sub-inspectors, who are not officers in charge of police station and junior officers, in dealing with unlawful assemblies, are explained in Rule 14-56(3).

1-13.    Classes and ranks of police officers – The expression “gazetted police officers” is applied to police officers appointed under section 4, Act V of 1861, and includes the Inspector-General, Deputy Inspector General, Assistant Inspectors General, Superintendent and Deputy Superintendents.

The expression “enrolled police officer” is applied to police officers appointed under section 7, Act V of 1861, and includes inspectors, sergeants, sub-inspectors, assistant sub-inspector, head constables and constables.

The expression “uppers subordinate” includes all enrolled police offices of and above the rank of assistant sub-inspector.

The expression “lower subordinate” includes all other enrolled police officers.

 Part II of Chapter 1: Organisation 


[1] Sub. of the Notifi. No. 7258/M-II, dated: 22-04-1983, [PLD 1983 Punjab St. 44]

[2] Subs. of the Notifi. No. 7258/M-II, dated:22-4-1983, [PLD 1983 Punjab St. 44]

[3] Subs. of the word “Schools” by Notifi. 7258/M-II, dated:22-4-1983, [PLD 1983 Punjab St. 44]

4 Subs. of the word “Criminal Investigation Department” by Notifi. 7258/M-II, dated:22-4-1983, [PLD 1983 Punjab St. 44]

5 Deleted for the word “Criminal Investigation Department” by Notifi. 7258/M-II, dated:22-4-1983, [PLD 1983 Punjab St. 44]

[6]2 Subs by Pb. Notification No. 7258/-M-III dated 27-4-83 [PLD 1983 Pb. St. 44]

[7]3  Subs. for paragraph No. (3), by the Pb. Notification No. 7258/M-III, dated: 27.04.1983 , [PLD 1983 Pb. St. 44]

9  Deleted by Ins. By Notification No. 7258/-M-III dated 13-4-83

10  Deleted by Ins. By Notification No. 7258/-M-III dated 13-4-83


11  New rule 1.21-A, inst. by the SRO 677(1)/2005, datd: 06.03.2005, [Pub. in Gaz of Pakitan Extd. Pt. II, p, 1856]



Punjab Police Rules 1934